"To the best of my ability, every patient who was treated was treated in good faith for pain," she said in a phone interview.
Hoover said she was trying to help people who were suffering. The state medical board revoked her license last year after she missed a disciplinary hearing related to allegations she asked a 17-year-old female patient to have sex with her teen sons in 1995.
"As a physician, you have a pool of people that are addicts," she said. "I did my very best to sort people out."
Shafer's attorney, Dwane Tinsley, said his client did not want to comment on the case. Her clinic closed in 2009, and she later surrendered her medical license.
"She has not been charged, but she is under investigation," he said.
Jet-setting for drugs
Police acknowledge that shutting down a suspected pill mill doesn't solve the overall problem.
In the past few years, drug dealers from Detroit have "flooded the market" in West Virginia with pills, said Joe Ciccarelli, FBI supervisory senior resident agent in Charleston.
"A lot of them have shifted into the pill business," he said.
Many people also travel to Florida, where prescription regulations are notoriously lax. They go from doctor to doctor to load up on prescription pills they sell back home, he said. On the street, people typically pay $1 per milligram for most prescription pills.
Sparks, the county prosecutor, knows of Mingo County residents who travel to a particular doctor in Boca Raton, Fla., for pills. They take cheap flights from Huntington to the Sunshine State.
"You can't make this stuff up," Sparks said. "I mean, jet-setting for prescription drugs."
Sparks remembers a case where a woman overdosed after a night of doing drugs with her friends.
They called 911. She died on the way to the hospital that morning.
"Then later that day, [her friends] traveled to Florida to get more oxycodone," he said.
Even when a pill mill shuts down, Ciccarelli said, "We're still going to have addicts living here."
"Treatment has to be part of the equation," he said. "Society has to recognize that it's unacceptable for people to just be medicated into oblivion."
McCormick, the mayor, said rehabilitation options are sorely lacking in the area.
"I would like to see more discussion about treatment," he said. "The problem is addiction."
Throughout West Virginia, services are hard to find outside of major cities, said Laura Lander, clinical supervisor of the West Virginia Prescription Drug Abuse Quitline.
"We actually have people traveling from as far away as Princeton to come up here and receive services" in Morgantown, she said. "In this state, there are not enough services for everyone who needs them. It's hard for people to stay motivated when they're told on the phone that, 'We have a month waiting list or a two-month waiting list.'"
'No one's exempt'
About 30 miles from Williamson, Amy Turner runs the Mingo County STOP Coalition, an anti-drug community group that operates out of the Larry Joe Harless Community Center in Gilbert.
Near the community center, the coalition runs an eight-bed recovery home for women. It's a small place called Crossroads, but Turner says it represents a bit of hope in the community.
"I would like to see the stigma leave," she said.
Addiction has hit people from all walks of life, she said: "It's people way higher up than we would ever know."
On Monday nights at the community center, pastor Anthony Hudgins of Eagle Sanctuary, an interdenominational church in Man, leads support groups for families of drug addicts.
He has seen the pain drugs cause: divorces, overdose deaths, wrecked lives.
"It just affects every age, every status of life," he said. "No one's exempt from this."
Usually, about 10 or 15 people show up for the support group. He wants to more people to speak up.
"We need more leaders, more government, more members of the community to get involved," he said. "One of the issues I see in our area is people just stick their head in the sand. They feel like if we just don't talk about it, it'll go away. But it doesn't go away."
Coming Monday in The Gazette: The ups and downs of Suboxone treatment for addiction.
Reach Alison Knezevich at alis...@wvgazette.com or 304-348-1240.
This series was conceived and produced as a project for The California Endowment Health Journalism Fellowships, a program of the USC Annenberg School for Communication & Journalism.