Restoring up to 47 extra weeks of benefits through 2014 would cost $19 billion, according to the Congressional Budget Office.
House Democrats led by Reps. Sander Levin of Michigan and Chris Van Hollen of Maryland sought to include an extension through March by offsetting the costs with potential farm-bill savings. They were rebuffed.
Senate Democrats -- and some Republicans -- plan another push in 2014. Sens. Jack Reed, D-R.I., and Dean Heller, R-Nev., have introduced a bill offering a similar three-month extension, and Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D-Nev., has promised to bring it up. However, as with much in Congress, an extension is no sure thing.
House Speaker John Boehner spoke with Obama about an extension earlier this month. Boehner and said his caucus would consider the possibility "as long as it's paid for and as long as there are other efforts that will help get our economy moving once again." He said the White House has yet to introduce a plan that meets his standards.
For other Republicans, the bar is higher. Many of them look at signs of economic growth and an unemployment rate now down to 7 percent and expected to drop further as evidence that the additional weeks of benefits no longer are necessary.
The effect of jobless benefits on the unemployment rates has been fiercely debated for decades. To qualify, people have to be seeking work. Tea party favorites, such as Sen. Rand Paul of Kentucky, argue that the payments aggravate -- rather than relieve -- unemployment.
The benefits allow some jobseekers to hold out for higher wages. Without the benefits, they might accept lower-paying jobs, reducing the unemployment rate. Others might be looking for work only to keep the benefits flowing and will drop out of the job market entirely once the checks stop. In theory, that also would push the unemployment rate lower.
The flip side is that the benefits -- in addition to easing suffering -- get spent on consumer goods, stimulating the economy and creating jobs.
Extended unemployment insurance "is really a lifeline to help pay the bills, put food on the table and put gas in the tank so people can look for work," argued Maurice Emsellem, policy co-director at the left-leaning National Employment Law Project.
Michael Feroli, an analyst at JPMorgan Chase, said ending the extended benefits will lower the unemployment rate by half a percentage point as the long-term unemployed leave the labor force. While that statistical change might look good on the surface, Feroli cautioned that the drop could be accompanied by a similar decrease in consumer spending. That would hurt clothing retailers, car dealers and other Main Street businesses.
Extending the program, on the other hand, would boost GDP growth by about 0.2 percent and increase full-time employment by 200,000 next year, the Congressional Budget Office estimated, but at the price of increasing the government's debt.
Advocates of extended benefits say communities hardest hit by the recession will feel the loss of cash in circulation the most.
They cite a set of their own troublesome figures: three jobseekers still competing for each opening; about 4 million people in the ranks of the long-term unemployed; unemployment lasting on average 37 weeks, two months longer than most states provide benefits.